541242 - Medio Atmosférico e Hídrico (OPTATIVAS VINCULADAS) - Curso 2012/2013
- Créditos ECTS
- Créditos ECTS: 7.50
- Total: 7.5
- Tipo: Materia Ordinaria RD 1497/1987
- Departamentos: Edafología y Química Agrícola, Química Analítica, Nutrición y Bromatología
- Áreas: Edafología y Química Agrícola, Química Analítica
- Centro: Facultad de Farmacia
- Convocatoria: Primer Cuatrimestre
- Docencia y Matrícula: null
Existen programas da materia para los siguientes idiomas:CastellanoGallegoInglésCourse objectives
To make known the composition and function of the environment’s fluid components regarding human health and the ecosystems. Study of the main analytical techniques for the determination of pollutants (in water, air and particles).Contents
Unit 1: Energy balance. Extraterrestrial radiation. Energy balance at the earth’s surface. Properties of spectrum bands. Ultraviolet radiations. Structure of temperatures in the atmosphere. Zonal variations. Topographic spectra.
Unit 2: Atmospheric dynamics. Stratosphere and tropopause. Action centres, air masses and fronts. Structure of wind. Zonal and topographic variations. Non-turbulant dispersions of pollutants. Characteristics and evolution of plumes. Turbulence and diffusion.
Unit 3: Precipitations. Atmospheric humidity. Clouds and fogs. Precipitation types. Precipitation origin. Zonal and topographic variations.
Unit 4: Atmospheric composition. Gas compounds (of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen, ozone and oxidants). Non-viable particles (ions, Aitken nuclei and major particles). Viable particles (pollen, microorganisms and insects). Radionuclides.
Unit 5: Chemistry of atmosphere. Primary and secondary compounds. Stratosphere: ozone and proton flow. Tropopause: photochemical smog, nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide. Particles and aerosols. Health issues.
Unit 6: Climatology o fair pollution. Climate elements and their representation. Scales and maps. Control nets. Temperature: Day- degree and investments. Wind: direction and speed. Atmospheric stability. Solar radiation. Climatic indices of health interest.
Unit 7: Urban climatology. Temperature regime: heat island. Fogs. Traffic and pollutants. Heating. Ventilation. Insolation. Indoor climatology.
Unit 8: Effects o fair pollution. Damages on vegetation. Factors affecting the vegetation response. Pollution bioindicators. Effects on animlas. Effects on human health. Acute and chronic episodes. Risk assessment and prevention.
Unit 9: Climatic change. Climate evolution. Factors of climatic evolution. Anthropogenic alterations: agrarian and industrial. Greenhouse effect. Pollution and climatic change. Biological and health effects. Prevention measures.
Unit 10: Galicia´s climate. Wether types. Radiation and temperaturas. Precipitations. Winds. Spatial and temporal variations. Information sources. Control nets of atmospheric pollution.
Unit 11: Water balance. General characteristics. World water balance. Water consumption and availability. Foreseen evolution. Water pollution and quality. Evolution and prevention measures. Human health, biological problems and water quality.
Unit 12: Runoffs: Effective precipitation. Infiltration and phreatic level. Genesis of runoffs (Horton and Dunne). Surface runoff. Subsurface runoff: fast and slow. Deep runoff.
Unit 13: Subterranean waters. Aquifers: types and locations. Water recharge, flows and consumption. Hydrochemistry of the subterranean water: Pipper diagram. Wells and springs. Collection Systems. Processes of pollution and self purification of subterranean water.
Unit 14: Mineral-medicinal waters. Classification. Physical characteristics: temperature and radioactivity. Composition. Variability. Geological origin. Pollution risks. Mineral-medicinal waters in Galicia.
Unit 15: River basin. Limits and drainage network. Basin morphometry. Basin types. Flow genesis. Hydrometric regime. Hydrogram. Erosion and sedimentation. Basal and fast flows and its relationship to material transport.
Unit 16: Seawaters. Coasts and estuaries. Sea dynamics: currents, swells and tides. Sedimentation processes. Geochemical and seawaters. Main pollutants: hydrocarbons, metals and others. Galician coasts and rias: typology, dynamics and main environmental problems
Unit 17: Urban hydrology. Domestic consumption. Typology of urban waste waters. Urban basin and sewer system. Urban water balance. Main pollutants. Hydrograms and sewer system. Purification systems. Overflow of rain waters. Control strategies: line or derivative retention or detention. Green and permeable areas.
Unit 18: Effects of water pollution. Nitrogenous and phosphorous compounds: health and environmental problems. Eutrophication. Organic compounds: pesticides and PCBs, metals and other health (carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and others) and environmental problems. Parasites, bacteria and viruses: transmissible diseases. Water quality and rules: for consumption, bath and aquatic life.
Unit 19: Control and prevention of water pollution. Specific focuses. Purification systems and disposal canon. Diffuse focuses. Emission rules. Basic strategies. Compatible behaviour rules. Protection perimeters. Green filtres. Riparian forests.
Unit 20: Hydrology in Galicia: Water balance. Water flows and quality. Subterranean waters. Mineral-medicinal waters.
Unit 21: Introduction to environmental sampling. Planning and sampling protocols. Quality guarantee and quality control.
Unit 22: Water sampling. Sampling variability. Conditions during sampling. Sampling programmes. Sampling equipment and techniques. Sampling of atmospheric precipitations, of surface waters and of subterranean waters.
Unit 23. Water analysis I. Majority constituents. Measure of water quality. Techniques for the analysis of common ions.
Unit 24: Water analysis II: Trace constituents. Techniques for the analysis of organic compounds. Techniques for the analysis of metallic ions.
Unit 25: Air sampling: Sample homogeneity. Sample preservation. Particle sampling. Gas and vapour sampling.
Unit 26: Atmospheric analysis: gases. Determination of average concentration: adsorption trains, adsorbents, diffusion tubes. Determination of instantaneous concentrations: instruments of direct reading. Gas detecting tubes. Gas chromatography. Remote sensors.
Unit 27: Atmospheric analysis: particles. Direct analysis of solids: X-ray fluorescence, X-ray emission, Neutron activation analysis, Infrared spectrometry.
Methods of sample previous solution.Basic and complementary bibliography
Roger N, Reeve, Environmental Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
Iain L. Marr, Malcolm S. Cresser, José Luis Gómez Ariza, Química Analítica del Medio Ambiente, Servicio de publicaciones de la Universidad de Sevilla, 1990.
R.E. Hester, Understanding our environment, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Londres, 1986.
The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Editor O. Hutzinger, Springer Verlag, Berlín.
Principles of Environmental sampling, Editor Lawrence H. Keith, ACS Professional Reference Book, American Chemical Society, 1988.
Lawrence H. Keith, Environmental Sampling and Analysis, Lewis Publishers, Michigan, 1991.
Methods of air sampling analysis, Editor James P. Lodge, Lewis Publishers, Michigan, 1991.
K. Wark, C.F. Warner, Contaminación del aire (origen y control), Limusa-Noriega Editores, México, 1996.
E. Peris mora, Atmósfera y su contaminación, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Servicio de Publicaciones, 1992.
B.J. Filayson Pitts, J.N. Pitts Jr. Atmospheric Chemistry: fundamentals and experimental techniques, Wiley Interscience Publ., New York, 1994.
W. Fresenius, K.E. Quentin, W. Schneider Eds, Water Analysis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988.
K. Grasshoff, M. Ehrhardt, K. Kremling Eds, Methods of Seawater analysis, Verlag Chemie, 1983.
T.R. Crompton, Analysis of seawater, Butterworths, Londres, 1989.Competence
The competences are the typical of the first years of Pharmacy, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Medicine, Engineering and similar degrees.Teaching methodology
Theory classes (70%) and seminars (20%) where practical questions closely related to theory classes will be solved. Seminars will be focused on the students’ direct participation.Assessment system
For the assessment of the subject we will take into account the grade achieved in the final exam, the participation in educational activities and the grade of the essays completed along the academic year.Study time and individual work
Students must devote one hour of personal work per each hour of contact class.Recommendations for the study of the subject
We also recommend, firstly, continuing attendance to theory classes and, also, to seminar classes, where the students´ participation is essential.
In addition, we recommend participation in the tutorials along the term and not only on the days previous to the exam.